Physical Inactivity in Youth During COVID-19: A Narrative Review
AbstractThe prevalence of physical inactivity in youth during COVID-19 has varied across countries and depending on the age of the youth and whether the data were collected during lockdown versus non-lockdown. In studies that compared activity pre-and during COVID, activity decreased in 40-59% of youth. Several negative effects have been noted, including excessive screen time, sleep problems, over-eating, and affective disturbances. Physical inactivity was a significant correlate of all of these problems. Relatively little intervention research has been conducted, and underlying mechanisms have not been explored. As in most of the COVID-19 literature, this research has the limitations of being typically cross-sectional and self-reported.
Ng K, Cooper J, McHale F, Clifford J, Woods C. Barriers and facilitators to changes in adolescent physical activity during COVID-19. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med 2020;5:6:e000919. doi: 10.1136/bmjsem-2020-000919.
Bingham DD, Daly-Smith A, Hall J, et al. Covid-19 lockdown: Ethnic differences in children's self-reported physical activity and the importance of leaving the home environment; a longitudinal and cross-sectional study from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2021;18:117. doi: 10.1186/s12966-021-01183-y.
Guo YF, Liao MQ, Cai WL, et al. Physical activity, screen exposure and sleep among students during the pandemic of COVID-19. Sci Rep. 2021 Apr 20;11:8529. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-88071-4.
Taeymans J, Luijckx E, Rogan S, Haas K, Baur H. Physical activity, nutritional habits, and sleeping behavior in students and employees of a Swiss university during the COVID-19 lockdown period: Questionnaire survey study. JMIR Public Health Surveill 2021;13;7(4):e26330. doi: 10.2196/26330.
Kang S, Sun Y, Zhang X, Sun F, Wang B, Zhu W. Is physical activity associated with mental health among Chinese adolescents during isolation in COVID-19 pandemic? J Epidemiol Glob Health 2021;11:26-33. doi: 10.2991/jegh.k.200908.001.
Yang S, Guo B, Ao L, et al. Obesity and activity patterns before and during COVID-19 lockdown among youths in China. Clin Obes 2020;10:e12416. doi: 10.1111/cob.12416.
Jia P, Zhang L, Yu W, et al. Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on activity patterns and weight status among youths in China: the COVID-19 Impact on Lifestyle Change Survey (COINLICS). Int J Obes (Lond) 2021;45:695-9. doi: 10.1038/s41366-020-00710-4.
Pietrobelli A, Pecoraro L, Ferruzzi A, et al. Effects of COVID-19 lLockdown on lifestyle behaviors in children with obesity living in Verona, Italy: A longitudinal study. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2020;28:1382-5. doi: 10.1002/oby.22861.
Alves JM, Yunker AG, DeFendis A, Xiang AH, Page KA. Associations between affect, physical activity, and anxiety among US children during COVID-19. Pediatr Obes 2021;15:e12786 doi: 10.1101/2020.10.20.20216424.
Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene R, et al. The preliminary test manual for the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. Menlo Park (CA): Mind Garden, Inc; 1983.
Xiao S, Yan Z, Zhao L. Physical activity, screen time, and mood disturbance among Chinese adolescents during COVID-19. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 2021;59:14-20. doi: 10.3928/02793695-20201104-04.
Baceviciene M, Jankauskiene R. Changes in sociocultural attitudes towards appearance, body image, eating attitudes and behaviours, physical activity, and quality of life in students before and during COVID-19 lockdown. Appetite 2021;166:105452. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2021.105452.
Schmidt SCE, Anedda B, Burchartz A, et al. Physical activity and screen time of children and adolescents before and during the COVID-19 lockdown in Germany: a natural experiment. Sci Rep 2020;10:21780. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-78438-4.
Awais MA, Chaudhery MM, Khan MS, et al. Factors contributing to distress among school and college-going adolescents during COVID-19 lockdown: A cross-sectional study conducted in Sibi Balochistan, Pakistan. J Educ Health Promot 2021;10:317. doi: 10.4103/jehp.jehp_1313_20.
Androutsos O, Perperidi M, Georgiou C, Chouliaras G. Lifestyle changes and determinants of children's and adolescents' body weight increase during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Greece: The COV-EAT Study. Nutrients 2021;13:930. doi: 10.3390/nu13030930.
Łuszczki E, Bartosiewicz A, Pezdan-Śliż I, et al. Children's eating habits, physical activity, sleep, and media usage before and during COVID-19 pandemic in Poland. Nutrients 2021;13:2447. doi: 10.3390/nu13072447.
Moriarty T, Bourbeau K, Fontana F, McNamara S, Pereira da Silva M. The relationship between psychological stress and healthy lifestyle behaviors during COVID-19 among students in a US Midwest university. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021;18:4752. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18094752.
Ruíz-Roso MB, de Carvalho Padilha P, Matilla-Escalante DC, et al. Changes of physical activity and ultra-processed food consumption in adolescents from different countries during Covid-19 pandemic: An observational study. Nutrients 2020;12:2289. doi: 10.3390/nu12082289.
Craig CL, Marshall AL, Sjöström M, et al. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35:1381-95. doi: 10.1249/01.MSS.0000078924.61453.FB.
Amatori S, Donati Zeppa S, Preti A, et al. Dietary habits and psychological states during COVID-19 home isolation in Italian college students: The role of physical exercise. Nutrients 2020;12:3660. doi: 10.3390/nu12123660.
Reyes-Olavarría D, Latorre-Román PÁ, Guzmán-Guzmán IP, Jerez-Mayorga D, Caamaño-Navarrete F, Delgado-Floody P. Positive and negative changes in food habits, physical activity patterns, and weight status during COVID-19 confinement: Associated factors in the Chilean population. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020;17:5431. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17155431.
Palmer K, Bschaden A, Stroebele-Benschop N. Changes in lifestyle, diet, and body weight during the first COVID 19 'lockdown' in a student sample. Appetite 2021;167:105638. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2021.105638.
McNair D, Lorr M, Droppleman L. Manual for the Profile of Mood States. San Diego: Educational and Industrial Testing Service; 1971. P. 27.
Okuyama J, Seto S, Fukuda Y, et al. Mental health and physical activity among children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Tohoku J Exp Med 2021;53:203-15. doi: 10.1620/tjem.253.203.
Kertz S, Bigda-Peyton J, Bjorgvinsson T. Validity of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale in an acute psychiatric sample. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2013;20:456-64. doi: 10.1002/cpp.1802.
Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med. 2001; 16:606-13.
Fabricant PD, Robles A, Downey-Zayas T, et al. Development and validation of a pediatric sports activity rating scale: the Hospital for Special Surgery Pediatric Functional Activity Brief Scale (HSS Pedi-FABS). Am J Sports Med. 2013;41:2421-9. doi: 10.1177/0363546513496548.
McGuine TA, Biese KM, Petrovska L, et al. Mental health, physical activity, and quality of life of US adolescent athletes during COVID-19-related school closures and sport cancellations: A study of 13 000 athletes. J Athl Train 2021;56:11-9. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-0478.20.
Field T. Anxiety and depression in youth during COVID-19: A narrative review. J Psychiatry Research Reviews and Reports. 2021;3:1-8. doi.org/10.47363/JPSRR/2021(3)126.
Nigg C, Oriwol D, Wunsch K, et al. Population density predicts youth's physical activity changes during Covid-19 - Results from the MoMo study. Health Place 2021;70:102619. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2021.102619.
Mitra R, Moore SA, Gillespie M, et al. Healthy movement behaviours in children and youth during the COVID-19 pandemic: Exploring the role of the neighbourhood environment. Health Place 2020;65:102418. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2020.102418.
Field T. Social media and mental health in youth during COVID-19: A narrative review. Int J Psychol Res. 2021;4:54. doi.org/10.28933/ijprr-2021-08-2905.
Guerrero MD, Vanderloo LM, Rhodes RE, Faulkner G, Moore SA, Tremblay MS. Canadian children's and youth's adherence to the 24-h movement guidelines during the COVID-19 pandemic: A decision tree analysis. J Sport Health Sci 2020;9:313-21. doi: 10.1016/j.jshs.2020.06.005.
Zheng Y, Wang W, Zhong Y, et al. A peer-to-peer live-streaming intervention for children during COVID-19 homeschooling to promote physical activity and reduce anxiety and eye strain: Cluster randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res 2021;30;23:e24316. doi: 10.2196/24316.
O'Kane SM, Lahart IM, Gallagher AM, et al. Changes in physical activity, sleep, mental health, and social media use during COVID-19 lockdown among adolescent girls: A mixed-methods study. J Phys Act Health 2021;18:677-85. doi: 10.1123/jpah.2020-0649.
Field T. Massage therapy research: A narrative review. Int J Psychol Res Rev. 2021;4:45. doi: 10.28933/ijprr-2020-12-0805.
Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Integrative Pediatrics and Environmental Medicine
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Policy for Articles with Open Access
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post links to their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.