Gender Disparity among Preterm Born Neonates
AbstractIntroduction: Infants born preterm remain vulnerable to many complications. Objective was to identify gender differences in morbidity and adverse outcomes among premature and low birth weight born babies.Methods: A retrospective chart review of general pediatric clinic records was conducted for children and adolescents who were born premature and survived. Demographic, maternal, family, neonatal and postnatal data were abstracted. The data was then analyzed using a statistical calculator to perform one sample t-test between percentages.Results: Total 160 charts were reviewed. Out of 160, 58.8% males and 41% females were identified. The female babies were born at a higher rate as small for gestational age (SGA) babies, with a birth weight < 10th percentile (60.8% vs. 39%; p < 0.05), most of the male babies although pre-term were born as appropriate for gestational age (AGA). The incidence of complications associated with prematurity were found to be at a higher rate in male babies including jaundice (63.15% vs. 36.8%; p = 0.0198), metabolic issues (64.2% vs. 35.7%; p = 0.03), and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (60.5% vs. 39.4%; p =0.02). Sepsis was observed in 54% vs. 45.8% (p = 0.69), intracranial hemorrhage (ICH): 75% vs. 25% (p = 0.33), hypertension (HTN) 62% vs. 37% (p = 0.108).Conclusion: Gender related health disparity exists among pre-term born children although does not have a sufficient explanation. Most males, although born AGA, had a higher incidence of prematurity and its sequel requiring intensive healthcare support compared with females.
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